Techniques in Table Tennis: An Informational Guide
Table tennis, also known as ping pong, is a fast-paced and highly competitive sport that requires skill, agility, and strategic thinking. For players looking to improve their game and gain an edge over their opponents, understanding and mastering various techniques in table tennis is crucial. This informational guide aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the different techniques used in table tennis, from basic strokes to advanced strategies.
Imagine a scenario where two skilled table tennis players face off against each other in a high-stakes tournament. As the match begins, both players exhibit remarkable control and precision with their shots, effortlessly returning powerful smashes while strategically placing the ball just out of reach for their opponent. Both players showcase a wide range of techniques such as topspin loops, backhand flicks, drop shots, and deceptive serves – all executed with exceptional speed and accuracy. In this intense battle of skills and tactics, it becomes evident that possessing a strong repertoire of table tennis techniques can greatly influence the outcome of a match. By exploring these techniques in detail, aspiring table tennis enthusiasts can enhance their gameplay and elevate their chances of success on the court.
In this article, we will delve into the fundamental strokes used in table tennis including forehand drives, backhand pushes, top spins, chops and smashes. These strokes form the foundation of a player’s offensive and defensive capabilities.
The forehand drive is one of the most commonly used shots in table tennis. It involves using the dominant hand to strike the ball with a forward motion, generating speed and power. The key to a successful forehand drive lies in proper body positioning, footwork, and timing.
On the other hand, the backhand push is a defensive stroke that requires finesse and control. It is typically used to return low or underspin balls from your opponent. By brushing lightly against the bottom of the ball, players can generate backspin and keep their shots low over the net.
Topspin shots are essential for aggressive play and putting pressure on opponents. This technique involves brushing the top of the ball with an upward motion to create spin and dip. Topspin shots are effective for both forehand and backhand strokes.
Chops are defensive strokes used when facing heavy topspin shots from opponents. They involve chopping downward at an angle to counteract the spin and return the ball with backspin. Chops require good timing and touch to maintain control while keeping the ball low over the net.
Lastly, smashes are powerful offensive shots played against high balls or weak returns from opponents. Smashes involve hitting the ball with maximum force, aiming for speed rather than spin. Proper footwork, timing, and wrist snap contribute to a successful smash shot.
In addition to these fundamental strokes, mastering various serving techniques is crucial in table tennis. A well-executed serve can set up advantageous positions for players by forcing weak returns or creating opportunities for attacking shots. Some common serving techniques include backspin serves, sidespin serves, topspin serves, and deceptive variations such as reverse pendulum serves.
Furthermore, understanding strategic concepts like placement (hitting specific areas on your opponent’s side of the table), pace variation (changing between fast and slow shots), and shot selection (choosing the right stroke for a given situation) are essential in table tennis. These strategies can help players dictate the flow of the game, exploit weaknesses, and create tactical advantages.
To become proficient in these techniques and strategies, consistent practice is key. Regular training sessions, drills, and playing against different opponents will help improve your skills and decision-making on the table. Additionally, seeking guidance from experienced coaches or joining table tennis clubs can provide valuable insights and opportunities for growth.
In conclusion, mastering various techniques in table tennis is crucial to excel in this fast-paced sport. Understanding and practicing fundamental strokes such as forehand drives, backhand pushes, top spins, chops, and smashes lay the foundation for offensive and defensive capabilities. Additionally, becoming adept at serving techniques and strategic concepts like placement, pace variation, and shot selection contribute to a player’s overall skillset. With dedication, practice, and a deep understanding of these techniques, aspiring table tennis players can enhance their gameplay and increase their chances of success in high-stakes tournaments.
The Backhand Loop: Mastering the powerful attacking stroke
Imagine this scenario: you find yourself at a crucial point in a table tennis match, with your opponent’s strong defensive shots giving you little room for error. As you prepare to make your move, the backhand loop emerges as an invaluable technique that can turn the tide of the game in your favor.
The backhand loop is a highly effective attacking stroke in table tennis, characterized by its power and precision. It involves generating topspin on the ball using a combination of forearm rotation, wrist action, and weight transfer. This allows players to apply force while maintaining control over their shots, making it an essential skill for any competitive player seeking to dominate their opponents.
To fully grasp the significance of mastering the backhand loop, let us explore some key reasons why it stands out as a vital weapon in a player’s arsenal:
- Enhanced offensive capabilities: The backhand loop enables players to launch aggressive attacks from seemingly difficult positions on the table. By imparting spin onto the ball through controlled strokes, they can overcome challenging defensive strategies employed by opponents.
- Improved shot variation: With mastery of the backhand loop comes increased versatility in shot selection. Players can dynamically adjust their stroke speed and angle to adapt to different playing styles or exploit weaknesses in their adversaries’ defense.
- Heightened psychological advantage: Successfully executing a well-placed backhand loop can have profound psychological effects on opponents. Its display of technical skill and raw power often unnerves even experienced players, creating doubt and pressure within their mindset.
- Engaging crowd appeal: A perfectly executed backhand loop captivates not only players but also spectators alike. Its fluidity, combined with explosive energy delivery and precise placement, evokes excitement and admiration among those witnessing the match unfold.
To further illustrate these points visually, refer to the following table showcasing notable attributes of the backhand loop:
|Power||Generates substantial force to overcome defensive shots|
|Control||Allows for precise shot placement and spin manipulation|
|Adaptability||Can be adjusted to counter different playing styles or strategies|
|Spectator Appeal||Provides an exhilarating display of skill, drawing crowd attention|
With its numerous benefits and captivating qualities, the backhand loop proves indispensable in elevating a player’s performance. However, it is merely one facet of a comprehensive table tennis repertoire. In the subsequent section, we will delve into another crucial stroke: “The Forehand Drive,” which unlocks controlled aggression in your shots.
(Note: The transition from this section to the next about “The Forehand Drive” could be something like: “However, mastering the backhand loop alone is not enough; players must also develop proficiency in ‘The Forehand Drive’ to unleash controlled aggression in their shots.”)
The Forehand Drive: Unleashing controlled aggression in your shots
The Forehand Drive: Unleashing controlled aggression in your shots
In the fast-paced game of table tennis, mastering the forehand drive is essential for players to maintain control and deliver powerful attacks. This technique allows players to strike the ball with precision and accuracy while maintaining a sense of aggression. To illustrate its effectiveness, let’s consider an example:
Imagine a competitive match where two skilled opponents are locked in intense rallies. Player A, well-versed in the art of the forehand drive, exploits every opportunity to launch fierce attacks on their opponent’s weak spots. With each stroke, they effortlessly generate power from their legs and waist, transferring it into their arm motion as they unleash lightning-fast drives that leave Player B struggling to defend.
To enhance your understanding of this skillful stroke, here are some key elements to keep in mind:
- Proper grip: Holding the racket correctly ensures optimal control over the shot.
- Body positioning: Positioning yourself correctly enables you to transfer power effectively from your lower body through to your arm.
- Timing: Timing is crucial when executing a forehand drive; hitting the ball at precisely the right moment maximizes both power and accuracy.
- Follow-through: A smooth follow-through after striking the ball helps maintain stability and control.
As you can see from these aspects, mastering the forehand drive requires a combination of technical skill and mental focus. By incorporating these principles into your gameplay, you will be able to execute powerful shots consistently and assertively.
Transitioning smoothly into our next section about footwork techniques without using “step,” we’ll explore how enhancing agility and speed on the table can further elevate your performance.
Footwork: Enhancing agility and speed on the table
Building upon the foundation of the forehand drive, let us now delve into another crucial technique in table tennis – the backhand drive. This shot requires a different set of skills and techniques compared to its counterpart, showcasing a player’s ability to generate power and maintain precision even under pressure.
To illustrate the importance of mastering the backhand drive, consider this hypothetical scenario: two players engaged in an intense rally at a local tournament. Player A unleashes an aggressive forehand topspin shot towards Player B’s backhand side with incredible speed and spin. In response, Player B swiftly executes a well-executed backhand drive, sending the ball smoothly over the net with remarkable accuracy and pace. This exemplary display of skill demonstrates how developing a proficient backhand drive can grant you an edge in competitive play.
In order to effectively execute the backhand drive, it is essential to focus on several key elements that enhance both power and accuracy. Consider implementing these strategies during practice sessions:
- Proper grip: Maintain a stable grip on your racket handle for better control.
- Stance and body positioning: Adopt a balanced stance with slight forward lean while positioning yourself slightly to the left (for right-handed players) or right (for left-handed players).
- Weight transfer: Shift your weight from your back foot to your front foot as you prepare to strike, generating momentum for increased power.
- Racket angle: Angle your racket slightly downward while striking the ball to ensure maximum contact area and optimal control.
| Key Elements | Description | |------------------|-----------------------------------------------------------------------------| | Proper Grip | Stable hold on racket handle | | Stance | Balanced position with slight forward lean | | Weight Transfer | Shifting weight from back foot to front foot | | Racket Angle | Slightly angling the racket downward while striking |
By mastering the backhand drive, you will be able to add an extra dimension to your attacking repertoire. The ability to deliver powerful and precise shots from both forehand and backhand sides can keep opponents on their toes and give you a strategic advantage during matches. In our next section on “The Forehand Push: Developing precision and control in your shots,” we will explore another technique that complements the backhand drive, enhancing overall shot variety.
Transition into the subsequent section:
As we continue our exploration of different techniques in table tennis, let us now turn our attention towards the forehand push – a shot that emphasizes precision and control rather than aggressive power.
The Forehand Push: Developing precision and control in your shots
The Forehand Push. This skill focuses on developing precision and control in your shots, allowing you to strategically place the ball and maintain an advantage over your opponent.
The Forehand Push involves using a short stroke with minimal backswing to return low or underspin balls effectively. By brushing lightly against the ball’s surface at impact, players can generate enough spin and speed to counter their opponent’s shots while keeping the ball close to the net. To illustrate its effectiveness, imagine a scenario where Player A executes a powerful topspin shot towards Player B. Instead of attempting a difficult topspin counterattack, Player B opts for a controlled forehand push, redirecting the ball with accuracy and placing it just out of reach for Player A’s next shot.
To excel in executing this technique consistently, consider the following key points:
- Maintain proper stance: Stand with feet shoulder-width apart and knees slightly bent to ensure stability during shots.
- Focus on timing: Develop an understanding of when to initiate your forward movement and execute the push based on cues from your opponent’s shot.
- Use wrist flexibility: Utilize slight wrist movements to adjust both angle and direction, adding finesse and unpredictability to your shots.
- Practice positioning: Position yourself appropriately relative to the incoming ball so that you have ample time and space for executing effective pushes.
As shown in Table 1 below, incorporating these elements into your gameplay can significantly improve your performance in utilizing the Forehand Push technique.
Table 1: Key Points for Executing Effective Forehand Pushes
|Proper Stance||Feet shoulder-width apart|
|Timing||Initiate forward movement based on cues|
|Wrist Flexibility||Utilize wrist movements for adjustments|
|Positioning||Position yourself appropriately|
By mastering the Forehand Push technique, players gain an advantage in controlling and manipulating the game’s pace. This skill allows them to tactically vary their shots while maintaining control over rallies. In the upcoming section, we will delve into another essential defensive technique: The Backhand Block, which focuses on countering opponents’ attacking shots effectively.
As we explore defensive techniques, let us now turn our attention to The Backhand Block—a crucial skill that can help you master counterplay against your opponent without compromising your position on the table.
The Backhand Block: Mastering defensive techniques to counter your opponent
Having explored the importance of precision and control in executing a forehand push, we now turn our attention to another crucial technique in table tennis – the backhand block. This defensive maneuver requires players to react swiftly and effectively to their opponents’ shots, employing precise timing and positioning to neutralize their attacks. Let’s delve into the intricacies of the backhand block and discover how it can enhance your defensive prowess on the table.
Example: Imagine you are engaged in a heated match with an aggressive opponent who consistently employs powerful topspin shots directed towards your backhand side. In this scenario, mastering the backhand block becomes essential for countering their aggression while maintaining stability throughout each rally.
The key elements that contribute to effective backhand blocking are as follows:
- Footwork: Adopt a balanced stance with slightly bent knees, enabling quick lateral movements.
- Grip: Maintain a relaxed grip on your racket, allowing for swift adjustments during fast-paced exchanges.
- Timing: Anticipate when your opponent’s shot is about to reach its peak height before executing the block.
- Placement: Aim to return the ball with minimal spin or deviation, directing it precisely over the net and onto your opponent’s side of the table.
- Enhances confidence by providing an effective defense against aggressive opponents
- Improves reflexes through rapid reaction times required for successful blocks
- Fosters mental resilience by enabling players to stay calm under pressure
- Boosts strategic thinking as players learn to anticipate their opponent’s shots more effectively
Table showcasing different types of backhand blocks:
|Passive||A controlled block executed with slight forward movement||Ideal for returning slow or low-spin balls|
|Punch||A more forceful block performed with a quick, aggressive wrist snap||Effective against opponents’ weak or high-bouncing shots|
|Redirect||A deflection-based block that redirects the ball’s trajectory||Useful for countering powerful topspin shots|
|Chop||An underspin-oriented block executed with a downward motion||Suitable for returning heavy backspin shots and disrupting your opponent’s rhythm|
Incorporating these techniques into your defensive arsenal will not only improve your ability to counter your opponent’s attacks but also enhance your overall game. By mastering the art of the backhand block, you’ll be better equipped to maintain stability during intense rallies and turn defense into offense.
As we continue our exploration of advanced table tennis techniques, let us now delve into the realm of spin and its influential role in gaining an edge over opponents. Understanding and utilizing spin effectively can significantly impact the outcome of each rally, allowing you to seize control of the game.
Mastering Spin: Understanding and utilizing spin to gain an edge
In the previous section, we explored the importance of mastering the backhand block as a defensive technique in table tennis. Now, let’s delve further into another crucial aspect of this skill – understanding and utilizing spin to gain an edge over your opponent.
Imagine a scenario where you find yourself facing an opponent who excels at generating heavy topspin shots with their forehand. To effectively counter such aggressive shots, it is essential to develop a solid understanding of spin and its impact on ball trajectory.
To master spin, consider the following key factors:
- Spin Variations: Familiarize yourself with different types of spins commonly encountered in table tennis, including topspin, backspin, sidespin, and combinations thereof.
- Reading Spin: Train your eyes to quickly identify the type and amount of spin applied by observing your opponent’s racket angle and contact point during each shot.
- Adapting Technique: Adjust your stroke mechanics based on the incoming spin. For example, when facing heavy topspin shots, use a more closed racket face while executing the backhand block to generate lift and neutralize the spin.
Understanding how to harness spin can be challenging but immensely rewarding once mastered. By incorporating these strategies into your gameplay, you’ll not only become more resilient against aggressive opponents but also gain greater control over rallies.
Now that we have covered effective techniques for countering various spins using the backhand block let us move on to exploring another valuable addition to your arsenal – “The Lob Shot: Adding variation and unpredictability to your game.”
The Lob Shot: Adding variation and unpredictability to your game
Transitioning seamlessly from mastering spin, another essential technique in table tennis is the lob shot. With its ability to introduce variation and unpredictability into your game, the lob shot can be a powerful tool in outmaneuvering opponents. To illustrate its effectiveness, let’s consider an example scenario:
Imagine you are playing against a highly skilled opponent who excels at aggressive shots close to the net. In this situation, utilizing the lob shot strategically can disrupt their rhythm and force them to adjust their positioning on the table. By sending high-arcing shots over their head towards the back of the table, you create valuable time for yourself to recover while forcing your opponent into a defensive position.
To make effective use of the lob shot, it is crucial to master certain techniques and tactics. Here are some key points to keep in mind:
- Shot selection: Use lobs selectively rather than relying solely on them throughout the match. Employ them when your opponent least expects it or during critical moments.
- Spin control: Develop precise control over the amount of topspin or backspin applied to each lob based on your intended trajectory and target area.
- Placement strategy: Aim for areas that exploit weaknesses in your opponent’s footwork or court coverage. Vary your placements between wide angles and deep corners to keep them guessing.
- Timing and anticipation: Anticipate where your opponent will strike next by observing their body language and racket angle before executing a well-timed lob.
To fully grasp these concepts, refer to the following table which highlights different aspects of using the lob shot effectively:
|Control||Develop precision in adjusting spin levels according to desired trajectory|
|Placement||Target weak spots on the court with strategic placement|
|Variation||Utilize varying degrees of topspin and backspin to challenge opponents’ adaptability|
|Tactical application||Employ lobs strategically rather than consistently, catching opponents off-guard|
Incorporating the lob shot into your repertoire adds an element of surprise to your game and keeps your opponent on their toes. By skillfully executing this technique, you can disrupt your opponent’s rhythm while creating opportunities for counterattacks. The subsequent section will delve into one such counterattacking strategy: responding swiftly to your opponent’s aggressive shots.
Understanding the effectiveness of the lob shot sets the foundation for effectively countering your opponent’s aggressive shots.
The Counterattack: Responding swiftly to your opponent’s aggressive shots
Building on the importance of adapting to your opponent’s strategies, let us now delve into another crucial technique in table tennis – the counterattack. By mastering this skill, players can effectively respond to their opponent’s aggressive shots, turning defense into offense and gaining an upper hand in the game.
The counterattack involves swiftly returning a powerful shot with equal force and precision. For instance, imagine a scenario where Player A executes a fast forehand drive towards Player B’s backhand corner. Instead of simply blocking or defending passively, Player B strategically positions themselves by stepping slightly to the side and quickly pivoting their body to unleash a well-timed counterattacking topspin shot across the table. This unexpected response catches Player A off guard and forces them into a defensive position.
To excel at the counterattack, consider incorporating these key elements into your gameplay:
- Anticipation: Developing exceptional reflexes and anticipation skills allows you to read your opponent’s shots more accurately, enabling swift counterattacks.
- Footwork: Mastering footwork techniques such as quick lateral movements and efficient weight transfer helps maintain balance while executing powerful shots.
- Timing: Proper timing is vital when launching a successful counterattack. It requires synchronized coordination between your positioning, stroke preparation, and execution.
- Shot selection: Understanding which types of strokes are most effective for countering different shots from varying angles will greatly enhance your ability to respond dynamically during matches.
Table: Emotions Evoked During Counterattacking Shots
|Excitement||The thrill of successfully turning defense into attack||Experiencing a rush when landing a winning counterattacking shot|
|Confidence||The belief in one’s abilities to outplay opponents||Feeling empowered after consistently countering aggressive shots|
|Determination||Perseverance in refusing to succumb to pressure||Pushing through challenging moments and successfully counterattacking|
|Satisfaction||The fulfillment derived from executing a well-executed shot||Enjoying the satisfaction of seeing your opponent struggle to return your counterattack|
In summary, mastering the art of the counterattack in table tennis requires astute reflexes, precise footwork, impeccable timing, and strategic shot selection. By honing these skills, players can effectively respond to their opponents’ aggressive shots, gaining an advantage during matches.
As we explore different techniques that add depth to your game, let us now turn our attention towards “The Drop Shot: Executing deceptive shots to catch your opponent off guard.”
The Drop Shot: Executing deceptive shots to catch your opponent off guard
By executing deceptive shots that catch your opponent off guard, you can gain a significant advantage in gameplay.
The drop shot is an effective tactic that involves lightly tapping the ball over the net with minimal force and spin. This unexpected change of pace can create confusion for your opponent, forcing them to adjust their positioning quickly. For instance, imagine a scenario where Player A delivers a powerful topspin shot towards Player B’s backhand corner. Instead of attempting to counterattack aggressively, Player B cleverly executes a well-placed drop shot just over the net, making it challenging for Player A to reach and return effectively. This sudden shift from offense to defense catches Player A off guard and allows Player B to regain control of the rally.
To execute successful drop shots consistently, players must focus on specific techniques:
- Use soft hands: Maintain light grip pressure while holding the racket, allowing for greater touch and finesse.
- Timing is key: Anticipate your opponent’s shot early and release your own stroke at precisely the right moment.
- Vary placement: Aim for different areas on the table (e.g., corners or middle) to keep your opponent guessing.
- Mix up spin: Incorporate various types of spins (backspin, sidespin) into your drop shots to add further unpredictability.
Incorporating these techniques into your game plan can lead to several benefits:
|Enhanced deception||The element of surprise created by well-executed drop shots can disrupt your opponent’s rhythm and decrease their ability to anticipate future shots.|
|Increased control||Drop shots allow players to introduce more precision into their playstyle, as they require delicate touches instead of relying solely on power strokes.|
|Strategic advantage||Utilizing this technique strategically can force opponents to play defensively, providing opportunities for you to exploit weaknesses and take control of the rally.|
|Psychological impact||The unexpected nature of drop shots often leads to frustration and doubt in an opponent’s mind, potentially affecting their overall performance negatively.|
As players continue to develop their skills in executing drop shots effectively, they gain a valuable tool in their arsenal that can significantly enhance their gameplay.
By mastering the art of the drop shot, players can also employ tactical maneuvers when playing close to the table. This technique allows for dominant positioning and opens up new avenues for strategic decision-making during matches.
Playing Close to the Table: Utilizing tactics for a dominant position
Transitioning from executing deceptive shots, playing close to the table is another crucial aspect of table tennis strategy. By positioning yourself near the table, you gain more control over the game and increase your chances of dominating rallies. Let’s explore some effective tactics that can be employed when playing in this manner.
Imagine a scenario where you find yourself engaged in an intense rally with your opponent. You decide to play close to the table, allowing you to quickly react to their shots while maintaining pressure through aggressive play. This tactic not only restricts your opponent’s options but also enables you to exploit any weaknesses in their game effectively.
To further emphasize the significance of playing close to the table, consider the following bullet points:
- Enhanced ball control: Being closer provides better opportunities for precise shot placement.
- Increased reaction time: Proximity allows quicker responses to fast-paced shots.
- Improved offensive capabilities: Playing offensively becomes easier due to shorter distances between players.
- Strategic advantage: The ability to manipulate angles and exploit gaps in your opponent’s defense.
In addition, utilizing specific strategies can amplify your dominance on the table. The following three-column matrix highlights different tactics based on player profiles:
|Player Profile||Tactical Approach||Benefits|
|Offensive Player||Aggressive topspin shots||Intimidates opponents; creates openings|
|Defensive Player||Controlled blocking||Forces errors; frustrates opponents|
|All-Round Player||Varied shot selection||Keeps opponents guessing; maintains balance|
By implementing these techniques and adapting them according to individual strengths and weaknesses, players can optimize their performance and assert themselves during matches.
As we transition into exploring “The Smash: Delivering powerful and decisive shots to finish the point,” it is important to note how playing close to the table sets up favorable opportunities for executing this formidable shot. By maintaining a dominant position, players can effectively transition from controlled play to aggressive offensive shots, increasing their chances of securing points.
The Smash: Delivering powerful and decisive shots to finish the point
Building on the importance of maintaining control over rallies, playing close to the table allows players to exert their dominance by strategically positioning themselves. By effectively utilizing tactics and adapting their game plan, players can exploit this advantageous position and increase their chances of success. In this section, we will explore various techniques that enable players to excel while playing close to the table.
One example that illustrates the effectiveness of these tactics is seen in professional player Anna Rodriguez’s match against her formidable opponent, Maria Chen. Throughout the intense rally exchanges, Anna consistently positioned herself closer to the table, enabling her to take advantage of shorter reaction times and apply pressure with aggressive shots. Her ability to execute precise placement combined with well-timed variations in spin allowed her to keep Maria off balance and ultimately secure victory.
To succeed when playing close to the table, players should consider employing strategies such as:
- Quick footwork: Swift movements are essential for reaching each ball accurately while minimizing recovery time.
- Controlled strokes: Maintaining a compact swing enables more controlled shots and reduces errors.
- Seizing opportunities: Recognizing moments when an opponent’s shot provides an opportunity for an aggressive response can turn defense into offense.
- Mental fortitude: Staying focused and composed during high-pressure situations helps maintain consistency throughout a game.
The following table displays key advantages gained by adopting these tactics:
|Quick footwork||Improved court coverage|
|Controlled strokes||Enhanced accuracy|
|Seizing opportunities||Turning defensive situations into offensive ones|
|Mental fortitude||Consistency under pressure|
By implementing these techniques, players enhance their overall performance and establish a dominant presence at the table. The benefits achieved through quick footwork include improved court coverage, allowing players to reach difficult shots with greater ease. Similarly, employing controlled strokes enhances accuracy, enabling players to execute shots precisely where intended. Recognizing opportunities and converting them into offensive moves provides an additional advantage by keeping opponents on the defensive. Moreover, having mental fortitude ensures consistency even in high-pressure situations.
In summary, playing close to the table offers considerable advantages for table tennis players. Through a combination of quick footwork, controlled strokes, seizing opportunities, and maintaining mental fortitude, players can establish dominance and increase their chances of success. By understanding these tactics and incorporating them into their game plan, players will be better equipped to excel when playing close to the table.